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Factors affecting venous blood return and pneumatic compression devices

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    Intrinsic Factors affecting venous blod return:

    The calf muscle pump 
    Abdomino-thoracic Pump
    The heart
    Venous gradient betwen the ankle and right side of the heart 
    Vein valve Integrity
    Sympathetic tome 

    Extrinsic Factors affecting venous blood return: 

    Native external compression (thickened skin, e.g. lipodermatosclerosis)
    Passive mechanical external compression (compression stockings)
    Active mechanical external compression (pneumatic pumops)