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Cardiac Vein Anatomy

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    An article published by M von Ludinghausen from the Institut für Anatomie und Zellbiologie, Universität Würzburg, Koellikerstr. 6, 97070 Würzburg, Germany described the two principal and one compound cardiac venous system are defined and discussed with reference to the existence of both the normal and anomalous coronary sinus and cardiac vein.

    1. The greater (major) cardiac venous system

    (2) The smaller (minor) cardiac venous system

    (3)The compound cardiac venous system. 

    The article is entitled The Venous Drainage of the Human Myocardium. adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol 2003; 168: I-VIII: 1-104. Author:  M von Ludinghausen.

    Dr Karamanoukian's note:  The coronary venous anatomy is important because it is used as a mode of delivery for retrograde carioplegia for myocardial protection during cardiopulmonary bypass during periods of controlled aortic cross clamping.